- Music and dance are integral to Nigerian culture, and each ethnic group has its own specialties. Traditional instruments include various types of flutes, trumpets, musical bows, xylophones, and wooden clappers, as well as many varieties of drums.
- Food is an important part of Nigerian life. Seafood, beef, poultry, and goat are the primary sources of protein. With so many different cultures and regions, food can vary greatly.
Nigeria’s rich and varied cultural heritage derives from the mixture of its ethnic groups with Arabic and western European influences. The country combines traditional culture with international urban sophistication. Secret societies, such as Ekpo and Ekpe among the Igbo, were formerly used as instruments of government, while other institutions were associated with matrimony. According to the Fulani custom of sharo (test of young manhood), rival suitors underwent the ordeal of caning as a means of eliminating those who were less persistent. In Ibibio territory, girls approaching marriageable age were confined for several years in bride-fattening rooms before they were given to their husbands. A girl was well-fed during this confinement, with the intent of making her plump and therefore more attractive to her future husband; she would also receive instruction from older women on how to be a good wife. These and other customs were discouraged by colonial administrators and missionaries. Some of the more adaptable cultural institutions have been revived since independence; these include Ekpo and Ekong societies for young boys in parts of the southeast and the Ogboni society found in the Yoruba and Edo areas of southern Nigeria.
Daily life and social customs
Nigeria’s vibrant popular culture reflects great changes in inherited traditions and adaptations of imported ones. Establishments serving alcoholic beverages are found everywhere except where Islamic laws prohibit them. Hotels and nightclubs are part of the landscape of the larger cities. Movie theatres, showing mostly Indian and American films, are popular among the urban middle- and low-income groups. Radio, television, and other forms of home entertainment (e.g., recorded music and movies) have also grown in popularity, though their use is dependent on the availability of electricity.
Whether in urban or rural areas, the family is the central institution. Families gather to celebrate births and weddings. Funerals are also times when the family gathers. Because so many Nigerians live outside the country, funerals for non-Muslims are often delayed for a month or more to allow all the family members to make plans to return home.
Food is an important part of Nigerian life. Seafood, beef, poultry, and goat are the primary sources of protein. With so many different cultures and regions, food can vary greatly. In the southern areas a variety of soups containing a base of tomatoes, onions, red pepper, and palm oil are prepared with vegetables such as okra and meat or fish. Soups can be thickened by adding ground egusi (melon) seeds. Gari (ground cassava), iyan (yam paste), or plantains accompany the soup. Rice is eaten throughout the country, and in the north grains such as millet and wheat are a large part of the diet. Beans and root vegetables are ubiquitous. Many dishes are flavoured with onions, palm oil, and chilies.
Nigerians celebrate several holidays throughout the year, including Independence Day (October 1), Workers Day (May 1), and various Christian and Islamic holidays.
Nigeria has a rich artistic heritage, including both traditional and contemporary art forms. From the naturalistic statues produced at Ife to the bronzes made for the king of Benin, Nigerian artists have crafted art that is world famous. The terra-cotta figurines of the Nok are some of the earliest statues in existence from sub-Saharan Africa. Ekpe masks and ikenga (personal shrines) from the Igbo in eastern Nigeria and ibeji (twin) sculptures from the Yoruba in western Nigeria are just three examples of the art produced in pre-colonial Nigeria. While many artists still work in these traditions, more-contemporary artists, who combine African and Western traditions, also abound. One of the earliest of these was Ben Ewonwu, who painted in oils as well as producing sculptures; to commemorate the visit to Nigeria of Queen Elizabeth II of England in 1956, Ewonwu made a bronze statue of her, later displayed at the Nigerian House of Representatives in Lagos. Other Nigerian artists include the Nsukka group, formed at the University of Nigeria at Nsukka in the early 1970s, consisting of Uche Okeke, Chike Aniakor, Obiora Udechukwu, El Anatsui, Tayo Adenaike, Ada Udechukwu, and Olu Oguibe. The Oshogbo movement, founded in the early 1960s, includes the artists Muraina Oyelami, Twins Seven-Seven (Prince Taiwo Osuntoki), Bisi Fabunmi, Tijani Mayakiri, Rufus Ogundele, and Ademola Onibonokuta.
Music and dance are integral to Nigerian culture, and each ethnic group has its own specialties. Traditional instruments include various types of flutes, trumpets, musical bows, xylophones, and wooden clappers, as well as many varieties of drums. Music is used to celebrate rulers and to accompany public assemblies, weddings and funerals, festivals, and storytelling. At one time the Edo of the kingdom of Benin distinguished between urban music that was performed at the palace and less complex music that was played in rural areas. Dance also has many varieties: Ishan stilt dancers in colourful costumes twist themselves in the air; one Tiv dance, called ajo, features male dancers who work in pairs, and another involves teams of women who perform a dance called icough while composing songs about current events. Dance for the Ubakala shows their value system, helps resolve conflicts, and also institutes change. Ekiti Yoruba dancers wear head masks so heavy that they can do only processional dances. The Hausa, who do not consider dancing to be an art, divide their dances into the categories of social dancing and ceremonial bòorii dances.
Nigerian playwright and musician Hubert Ogunde, founder of Nigeria’s first professional theatrical company (the Ogunde Concert Party), incorporated traditional instruments into his musical dramas of the 1940s in an effort to revive interest in indigenous culture. After radio and television stations were established in all the state capitals, they began broadcasting programs featuring traditional music and dance, folk operas, and storytelling; these programs are now available in some 25 languages.
King Sunny Ade
Nigerian contemporary music, which combines Western popular music with indigenous forms, has been exported throughout the world and has had wide influence (see also African popular music). Notable musicians include King Sunny Ade, who performed in a style called juju that combines the sounds of several guitars, vocals, and talking drums; and the politically charged Fela Anikulapo-Kuti, whose music is characterized by short songs and extended instrumental pieces. Each musician organized a large band with a horn section, a variety of drummers, and many guitar players.
Nigerian literature is known throughout the world. Wole Soyinka, who won the 1986 Nobel Prize for Literature, was the first Black African to receive the award. Other Nigerian writers with a worldwide audience include Chinua Achebe, Buchi Emecheta, Flora Nwapa, Amos Tutuola, Gabriel Okara, Kole Omotoso, John Pepper Clark, Ben Okri, and Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie.
Nigeria has many national museums, generally found in large cities and state capitals. The National Library of Nigeria is located in Lagos, as is the National Theatre. The Institutes of African Studies, at the Universities of Ibadan and Nigeria (Nsukka), have done much to reawaken interest in traditional folk dancing and poetry.
Physical features with cultural significance include the Sukur cultural landscape in Adamawa state, which provides a glimpse into the past of the Sukur people, and the Osun-Osogbo Sacred Grove in Osun state, a forest that contains several shrines and artwork in honour of the Yoruba deity Osun. These places were designated UNESCO World Heritage sites in 1999 and 2005, respectively.
Sports and Recreation
In precolonial times the sport of wrestling was a vehicle for expressing individual and social identity, status, and prestige. British colonizers introduced other sports to Nigeria in the early 20th century; football (soccer), boxing, athletics (track and field), and tennis were spread through mission schools, railroad companies, the armed forces, and the colonial bureaucracy. After independence in 1960, the Nigerian government used domestic and international sporting events to foster a sense of national identity among the various ethnic groups and to gain global recognition.
Football is a national obsession in Nigeria. The national team, the Super Eagles, led by such
outstanding players as Nwanko Kanu and Jay-Jay Okocha, reached the World Cup finals in 1994, 1998, and 2002 and won the gold medal at the 1996 Olympics. Likewise, the national women’s team has repeatedly reached the Women’s World Cup finals. The acclaim won by many Nigerian footballers playing abroad was mirrored by Hakeem Olajuwon, who became a superstar in the National Basketball Association in the United States, sparking widespread interest in the sport in Nigeria by the end of the 20th century. Nigerian boxers have also achieved international success, most notably middleweight and light-heavyweight world champion Richard Ihetu, who fought as “Dick Tiger.” Nigerians have excelled in boxing and athletics in the Olympic Games, to which the country sent its first team in 1952, in Helsinki.
Media and publishing
There are many dozens of daily, Sunday, and weekly newspapers in Nigeria, most of which are in English. The Nigerian Television Authority operates stations throughout the country, and the Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria broadcasts in English as well as several African languages; there are also many privately owned television and radio stations.